Outlines are essential to effective speeches.By outlining, you make sure that related ideas are together, that your thoughts flow from one to another, and that the structure of your speech is coherent. You will probably use two kinds of outlines for your speeches--the detailed preparation outline and the brief speaking outline.
In a preparation outline, you should state your specific purpose and central idea, and identify main points and sub--points using a consistent pattern. The speaking outline should consist of brief notes to help you while you deliver the speech. It should contain key words or phrases to bolster your memory. In making up your speaking outline, follow the same visual framework used in your preparation outline. Keep the speaking outline as brief as possible and be sure it is plainly legible.
Before you deliver an academic speech, you should, first of al, get well prepared for it. Then, you should make your major points clear in your speech, and your speech should be well organized. When speaking, you should not speak too fast, and your language should be explicit. Don’t always read the notes you prepared beforehand. From time to time, you should look at your audience. On one hand, you can show your respect to your audience, and on the other hand, you will be able to go on with your speech more smoothly.
Energy has a dual relationship with human well-being.For most of human history,man has been concerned mainly about the benefit side of the energy －well-being equation thank to the low costs involved in energy use.However,with the staggering scale of energy demand brought forth by 100 years of unprecedented population growth, coupled with an equally remarkable growth in per capita demand of industrial energy forms,energy entails increasingly higher costs,both external and internalized.On the one
hand,energy resources are reducing at an accelerating speed and energy supply requires higher input.On the other hand,the external costs seem more worrisome